Skip to main content

Deployment and Installation

This document describes the installation procedure for the E2E controller and configuring nodes for communication with the controller.

Cloud Services

This section describes the installation and initial configuration of the full Terragraph cloud suite, including E2E services and the NMS backend. The Terragraph cloud suite is deployed as a Docker Swarm.

Docker Swarm Installation

Since Terragraph uses the Docker ecosystem, it would be helpful to be familiar with Docker and Docker Swarm.

System Requirements

Docker Swarm recommends at least 3 (Docker) hosts for redundancy. If redundancy is not required, the cloud suite can be run on a single host. To support a network composed of roughly 512 sectors, each Docker host must meet the following specifications.

  • Ubuntu 18.04
  • 4 vCPU
  • 16GB of RAM
  • 200GB of disk space
  • Globally addressable IPv6 and private (or global) IPv4
  • A unique and static hostname for each Docker node

Partitioning Scheme

Below is a suggested filesystem partitioning scheme for the Docker hosts. By default, all of the Terragraph-specific data is stored in /opt/terragraph.

PartitionSizeDescription
/opt130GBStorage for all Terragraph data
/var/lib/docker50GBStorage for all Docker data

Installation

Terragraph comes with an installer that deploys and configures the Terragraph cloud suite. The installer is a PEX file which packages together Ansible, a Python CLI, and all of their dependencies into a single executable. An installation host that has SSH access to all the Docker hosts is necessary to run the installer. The installation host can be one of the Docker hosts.

For up-to-date installation instructions, see the Terragraph NMS repository.

  1. Download the installer (nms) on the installation host.
$ wget https://github.com/terragraph/tgnms/releases/latest/download/nms
  1. Make the nms binary executable.
$ chmod +x nms
  1. Install Python 3.8 (python3.8) on the installation host, and optionally install ssh-pass if password-based SSH is used to access the Docker hosts.
$ sudo apt-get install python3-distutils-extra
$ sudo apt-get install python3.8
  1. Create the config file.
$ ./nms show-defaults > config.yml
  1. Open and edit config.yml. The config options are documented within the config file. Replace the "NMS Web Login" credentials and change ansible_user to be the username on the installation host. If identity and access management is desired (recommended), follow the steps in the section Identity and Access Management Configuration.

  2. Run the installer. tg-docker-host-XX are placeholders for the IP addresses or hostnames of the Docker hosts. All Docker hosts must be provided to the install command. Include the private key and SSL certificate file for the Nginx server as arguments and set ext_nms_hostname to configure the location of the certs in the Docker path.

$ ./nms install -f config.yml -k <ssl-key-file> -C <ssl-cert-file> \
-h tg-docker-host-01 [-h tg-docker-host-02] [-h tg-docker-host-03]
  1. Open a web browser and navigate to the IP address of any of the Docker hosts to load the NMS UI. Select the "Network Config" menu, then select the "Controller" tab and change the configuration fields listed in the table below. Be sure to change <network> to the name of the network (under controllers_list in the nms installer config file).
KeyValue
flags.stats_agent_input_sock_url"tcp://stats_agent-<network>:4231"
statsAgentParams.endpointParams.kafkaParams.config.brokerEndpointList"PLAINTEXT://kafka:9092"
statsAgentParams.sources.controller.zmq_url"tcp://e2e_controller-<network>:28989"

Deploying Additional Networks

To add additional networks to a Docker Swarm deployment (i.e. networks managed by the same NMS instance), edit the config.yml file and add new entries to controllers_list, then re-run the install command above. Note that this will cause some downtime to running services, including those for existing networks.

Legacy Installation

Legacy Terragraph deployments make use of systemd for running the E2E stack. The NMS stack can no longer be installed with this method.

E2E Services

The installation steps for services contained within the E2E software image are described below.

Container Requirements

The following specifications support a network with roughly 512 sectors.

  • CentOS 7 or Ubuntu 17+
  • 2 vCPU
  • 12GB of RAM
  • 40GB of disk space
Reserved Ports

The cloud services use the following ports by default to communicate with each other and the Terragraph nodes:

PortExternalDescription
6881YesUsed by libtorrent to seed upgrade images.
6969YesOpentracker serves the torrent tracker on this port.
7007YesManagement communication port between E2E controller and nodes.
8002YesNMS aggregator listens on this port for stats from nodes.
8080YesAPI service runs on this port.
55555YesUsed by primary and backup controller to send and receive HA messages.
17077NoUsed for communication between various E2E controller apps.
17078NoUsed for streaming from the controller to API service, currently disabled.
18100NoUsed for communication between various NMS aggregator apps.
27007NoUsed by controller to publish stats to cloud-based stats agent.
28989NoUsed by controller to publish stats to cloud-based stats agent.

The external column indicates whether or not that port must be externally accessible. Note that 17077 and 18100 may have to be externally accessible if API service is not in the same network.

Pre-Installation

Have the following information available before installing the E2E controller:

  • An IPv6 network prefix that will be used to address the Terragraph nodes. This prefix will need to be reachable from the E2E controller when it is installed.
  • A route (possibly via a default) from a PoP node to the E2E controller machine(s). This can be static or learned from BGP.
  • A copy of the Terragraph E2E image (x86).
Installation

Note: The following installation steps have been tested on Ubuntu 17.10. Some commands and paths may differ for CentOS.

  1. Copy the Terragraph E2E image to the server and extract it to /opt/rootfs (or another directory).
$ scp e2e-image-tgx86.tar.gz my-e2e-controller01:/tmp/
$ mkdir /opt/rootfs
$ tar xvzf e2e-image-tgx86.tar.gz -C /opt/rootfs
  1. Create the environment file in /etc/default/tg_services. See /etc/tg_systemd_config/README.md for additional details.
$ cat /etc/default/tg_services
E2E_ROOTFS="/opt/rootfs"
API_ROOTFS="/opt/rootfs"
NMS_ROOTFS="/opt/rootfs"
AGENT_ROOTFS="/opt/rootfs"
DATA_DIR="/root/data"
# Relative to DATA_DIR
E2E_TOPOLOGY_FILE="/e2e-topology.conf"
E2E_CONFIG_FILE="/cfg/controller_config.json"
NMS_CONFIG_FILE="/cfg/aggregator_config.json"
# Additional CLI flags
API_ARGS="-http_port 8080"
  1. Create the external "data" directory (DATA_DIR in the environment file).
$ mkdir /root/data
  1. Install and enable the systemd service scripts.
$ cp /opt/rootfs/etc/tg_systemd_config/*.service /lib/systemd/system/
$ systemctl daemon-reload
# E2E controller
$ systemctl enable e2e_controller
$ systemctl enable opentracker
# NMS aggregator
$ systemctl enable nms_aggregator
# API Service
$ systemctl enable api_service
# Stats agent
$ systemctl enable stats_agent
  1. Create an empty topology file (E2E_TOPOLOGY_FILE in the environment file) within the "data" directory.
$ touch /root/data/e2e-topology.conf
  1. Copy the default E2E controller configuration file into the actual file location (E2E_CONFIG_FILE in the environment file). If needed, change statsAgentParams.endpointParams.kafkaParams.config.brokerEndpointList to the list of Kafka broker URLs. See /etc/e2e_config/controller_config_metadata.json for additional details.
$ cp /opt/rootfs/etc/e2e_config/controller_config_default.json \
/root/data/cfg/controller_config.json
  1. Copy the default NMS aggregator configuration file into the actual file location (NMS_CONFIG_FILE in the environment file). If needed, change dataEndpoints.nms.host to the URL prefix of the desired data endpoint. See /etc/stats_config/aggregator_config_metadata.json for additional details.
$ cp /opt/rootfs/etc/stats_config/aggregator_config_default.json \
/root/data/cfg/aggregator_config.json
High Availability

The E2E controller can be installed in High Availability (HA) mode, where a backup E2E controller runs passively on a separate machine and takes over if the primary controller fails. HA mode is strongly recommended, as Terragraph heavily relies on the E2E controller for normal network operation.

To enable HA mode, follow the installation steps above on both machines, with the following changes:

  • In the E2E controller configuration file (E2E_CONFIG_FILE), additional flags must be set. bstar_primary should be "true" on the primary controller and "false" on the backup controller.
{
"flags": {
"bstar_peer_host": "<hostname or IPv6 address of the other controller>",
"bstar_primary": "true"
}
}
  • In the environment file (/etc/default/tg_services), set a different value for AGENT_MAC on the backup controller, as shown below.
AGENT_MAC=0:0:0:0:0:1
  • Do not enable the nms_aggregator systemd service on the backup machine.

NMS Post-Installation

Post-installation configuration steps for the Terragraph NMS are described below.

Setup Options

NMS parameters can be configured by editing the file /opt/terragraph/gfs/nms/env/nms_custom.env. All available parameters are described in the table below.

KeyTypeDescription
API_REQUEST_TIMEOUTintegerWhen NMS makes an external API request, the request will be canceled if the response takes longer than API_REQUEST_TIMEOUT milliseconds.
Default: 5000
COMMIT_DATEstringCommit date for the NMS build. Use this to show the user the release date of the NMS. This is normally set automatically. This can be in any format as it's merely displayed in the UI.
COMMIT_HASHstringCommit hash for the NMS build. Use this to show the user the exact source control commit that this build was generated from. This is normally set automatically. This can be in any format as it's merely displayed in the UI.
E2E_DL_URLstringThe URL sent to the E2E controller to download node images uploaded via the UI. The format is <SCHEMA>://<IP OR HOST>, ex.http://nms-domain. Do not leave a trailing /. If the E2E controller and the UI run on the same host, use http://localhost.
http_proxystringSend external HTTP requests to the following URL. Note that this environment variable is lowercase due to the hosting environment.
ISSUES_URLstringURL to a bug tracker for logging issues with the NMS.
LOG_LEVELenum (debug, info, warning, error)NMS logs information to the console with varying degrees of verbosity. Higher verbosity log levels also show messages from less verbose levels. The most verbose is "debug", the least verbose is "error".
Default: info
NODE_ENVenum (development, production)Which mode to run the NMS process in. Development mode will reload the server when files change and enable logging to the console. Production mode will generate a static build and will log JSON to standard out.
Default: production
Alerting (BETA)
ALARMS_ENABLEDbooleanEnables the unified alarm configuration UI.
Depends on: ALERTMANAGER_CONFIG_URL, ALERTMANAGER_URL, PROMETHEUS_CONFIG_URL, TG_ALARM_URL
Default: false
ALERTMANAGER_CONFIG_URLstringURL of the Alertmanager configuration service.
Default: http://alertmanager_configurer:9101
ALERTMANAGER_URLstringURL of the Prometheus Alertmanager.
Default: http://alertmanager:9093
PROMETHEUS_CONFIG_URLstringURL of the Prometheus configuration service.
Default: http://prometheus_configurer:9100
TG_ALARM_URLstringHostname of the Terragraph event alarms service.
Default: http://alarms:40000
Authentication
CLIENT_ROOT_URLstringBase URL of the NMS. This should be the user-visible URL to access the NMS homepage (i.e. what a user would see in their browser address bar).
KEYCLOAK_CLIENT_IDstringKeycloak client ID to use. This must be retrieved from Keycloak if set manually.
KEYCLOAK_CLIENT_SECRETstringKeycloak client secret to use. This must be retrieved from Keycloak if set manually.
KEYCLOAK_HOSTstringURL of the Keycloak server to authenticate with. Full URLs are allowed here for cases where Keycloak is not served under the root hostname.
KEYCLOAK_HTTP_PROXYstringSend all Keycloak-related HTTP requests through this proxy. There are occasions where most services are hosted within an internal network behind a proxy, but the Keycloak authorization server may be on the public internet. In this case, Keycloak related requests must be sent through a different proxy than the default HTTP proxy. If this variable is not set, this falls back to http_proxy. If neither is set, this is n/a.
KEYCLOAK_REALMstringKeycloak realm to authenticate the user with. This must be retrieved from Keycloak if set manually.
LOGIN_ENABLEDbooleanEnables authentication for NMS. Authentication is handled by integrating with Keycloak.
Depends on: CLIENT_ROOT_URL, KEYCLOAK_HOST, KEYCLOAK_REALM, KEYCLOAK_CLIENT_ID, KEYCLOAK_CLIENT_SECRET
Default: false
SESSION_MAX_AGE_MSintegerHow long a user's login cookie will last.
Default: 86400000
SSO_ENABLEDbooleanEnables Single Sign-On (SSO) functionality through Keycloak.
Depends on: CLIENT_ROOT_URL, KEYCLOAK_HOST, KEYCLOAK_REALM, KEYCLOAK_CLIENT_ID, KEYCLOAK_CLIENT_SECRET
Default: false
Mapbox
MAPBOX_ACCESS_TOKENstringAccess token for the Mapbox account.
TILE_STYLEcomma separated stringsA comma separated list of tile names and URLs to display in the UI in the format <NAME>=<TILE STYLES URL>,.... If specified, at least one style must be listed or the UI will default to Mapbox styles.
Example: Night View=night.maptiles.org,Day View=day.maptiles.org
MySQL (or MariaDB)
MYSQL_DBstringThe MySQL database to connect to.
Default: cxl
MYSQL_HOSTstringThe hostname or IP address of the MySQL server to use.
Default: 127.0.0.1
MYSQL_PASSstringThe MySQL password to connect to the database with.
MYSQL_PORTintegerThe TCP port of the MySQL server to use.
Default: 3306
MYSQL_USERstringThe MySQL user to connect to the database as.
Default: root
Software Portal
SOFTWARE_PORTAL_API_IDstringID of the Terragraph software portal API token. This will be generated when creating the API token.
Default: tgdev
SOFTWARE_PORTAL_API_TOKENstringAPI token for the Terragraph software portal.
SOFTWARE_PORTAL_URLstringURL to the central Terragraph software portal. This is where official Terragraph releases are stored. Setting this variable will enable the software portal feature.
Default: https://sw.terragraph.link
Stats
GRAFANA_URLstringAbsolute or relative URL to the Grafana UI. This is used to link to certain Grafana dashboards. By default Grafana is hosted under CLIENT_ROOT_URL/grafana.
Default: grafana
PROMETHEUSstringURL of the Prometheus service.
Default: http://prometheus:9090
STATS_ALLOWED_DELAY_SECintegerAllowed delay in stats pipeline when showing availability. This is used for stats derived from the Kafka stats stream.
Default: 120
Experimental Features
KAFKA_HOSTScomma separated stringsComma separated list of Kafka hosts to pull node events from (see NOTIFICATION_MENU_ENABLED).
Example: [2001::1]:9092,[2001::2]:9092
SERVICE_AVAILABILITY_ENABLEDbooleanEnables the service availability display in the overview panel. Service availability represents the link's ability to carry real traffic at layer 4.
Default: false
NOTIFICATION_MENU_ENABLEDbooleanEnables the notification menu for streaming events from Kafka in realtime.
Depends on: KAFKA_HOSTS
Default: false
DEFAULT_ROUTES_HISTORY_ENABLEDbooleanEnables the default routes history feature.
Depends on: DEFAULT_ROUTES_HISTORY_HOST
Default: false
NETWORKTEST_HOSTstringHostname of the Terragraph Network Test service.

Self-Hosting Map Tiles Using OpenStreetMaps

If fetching remote map data in the NMS UI is not possible, the OpenStreetMaps tiles can be generated locally and hosted in a Docker tile server container.

$ git clone https://github.com/openmaptiles/openmaptiles.git
$ cd openmaptiles
  • Edit the .env file and change QUICKSTART_MAX_ZOOM to 14. Then run the quickstart.sh script to generate tiles. Generating tiles for a specific region is possible by adding the region name as the first parameter.
$ ./quickstart.sh <REGION NAME>
$ make start-tileserver
  • The tile server will now be running on port 8080 via docker-compose.
  • Specify the TILE_STYLE parameter by following the Setup Options for the UI.

Identity and Access Management Configuration

Access management is handled by Keycloak, an open source Identity and Access Management (IAM) system. Keycloak is capable of integrating with many identity providers such as Facebook and Google, as well as storing users inside its own database.

Installing and Enabling Keycloak

The following variables must be set in config.yml:

  • keycloak_enabled
  • nms_username - The username of the default NMS administrator.
  • nms_password - The password of the default NMS administrator.
  • ext_nms_hostname - Must be set to the externally visible NMS hostname (whatever a user would type into their browser's address bar). An IP address is also acceptable.
  • keycloak_root_user - The username of the default Keycloak administrator.
  • keycloak_root_password - The password of the default Keycloak administrator.
  • keycloak_db_user - The username of the Keycloak MySQL user.
  • keycloak_db_password - The password of the Keycloak MySQL user.

It is recommended to change keycloak_root_password and keycloak_db_password from their defaults.

Logging into the NMS for the first time

After successfully running the Ansible installer, visit the URL set in ext_nms_hostname in a web browser. The user will be shown a login page.

Enter the nms_username and nms_password variables from config.yml as the username and password. User access to Terragraph NMS may be configured by following the instructions in the section below.

Configuring User Access to Terragraph NMS

User authentication may be handled directly by Keycloak or by an external Identity Provider such as Facebook or Google. This guide will detail how to add a new user to Keycloak directly. Please consult the Keycloak documentation for instructions on configuring an external Identity Provider.

First, the user must sign in to the Keycloak administration dashboard by visiting /auth in a browser.

Click on the "Administration Console" link. Enter the username and password used as the keycloak_root_user and keycloak_root_password variables in config.yml.

Once logged in to the Keycloak administration dashboard, select the "TGNMS" realm from the dropdown at the upper-left of the screen. Click the "Users" link on the left sidebar. To view the users in the "TGNMS" realm, search for a user using the search bar or click the "View all users" button.

To give a new user access to Terragraph NMS, click the "Add user" button at the upper-right corner of the users table. Input a username for the user. It is also recommended to set a valid email address so the user may reset their own password using Keycloak. Optionally, select some "Required User Actions" for the user to perform when they sign-in. For example, the administrator may require a user to set a new password and verify their email.

Click the "Save" button to create the user. The newly created user must now be given authorization to access the Terragraph NMS. User authorization is configured by assigning Keycloak Roles to a user. Click on the "Role Mappings" tab. To assign roles to a user, select the desired role in the "Available Roles menu" and click the "Add selected" button. The user's new roles will take effect after their next sign-in.

Note that the "tg_all_read" and "tg_all_write" roles are called "Composite Roles". These are roles which contain multiple other roles. For example, if a user needs full read-access to the NMS, assign them the "tg_all_read" role and all corresponding read roles will be assigned to them. This can be demonstrated by assigning either composite role to a user and then looking at the "Effective Roles" menu on the right side of the "Role Mappings" screen.

Authorization and Roles

Roles are used to protect E2E API endpoints, as well as hide UI components in the Terragraph NMS. Descriptions of each role can be viewed by selecting the "Roles" link on the left sidebar. The roles required to access each E2E API endpoint are listed in the E2E API Documentation.

A role's name is broken up into two main parts: category and level. For example, the tg_ignition_read role has a category of "ignition" and a level of "read". If a user has the tg_ignition_write role, they are also able to access APIs in the same category that require the "read" level (write access implies read access). A user with the composite role tg_all_write has full read-write access to all endpoints and UI components.

Nodes

Some important node deployment steps are highlighted in the sections below.

Node Information

On Puma hardware, the MAC address and serial number of each node are encoded in a QR code on the back of the device. This is parsed as follows:

SN:<serial number>:M60:<MAC address>

Example:
SN:TG100P05241700057:M60:746FF7CA1A76
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^
Serial number => TG100P05241700057
MAC address => 74:6F:F7:CA:1A:76

First PoP Configuration

The configuration of Terragraph nodes is handled automatically by the E2E service. However, the first PoP node must be configured manually since connectivity to the E2E controller has not yet been established.

  1. Add the PoP site and node to the network topology (refer to Monitoring and Alerting for details).

  2. Create the PoP node configuration (refer to PoP Node Config for details).

  3. Generate the full PoP node configuration JSON using one of these methods:

    • Via NMS: Select the Node Config icon from the left-hand toolbar, click on the "Node" tab on the top bar, then select the PoP node in the left-hand column. Click Show Full Configuration on the bottom-left, make sure the correct versions are selected, then click Copy.

    • Via TG CLI: Run the following command (be sure to substitute the correct version details):

$ tg config get node -n pop-node-name full \
--version RELEASE_M61 \
--hardware NXP_LS1048A_PUMA \
--firmware 10.12.0
  1. Deploy the configuration to the PoP node using one of these methods:

    • Via SSH (requires a signed SSH key): Log into the node and write the full configuration JSON (obtained above) to the path /data/cfg/node_config.json.
    • Via web portal (must be enabled through envParams.WEBUI_ENABLED): On hardware that supports Wi-Fi for administrative access, connect to the node's Wi-Fi network and submit the full configuration JSON (obtained above) using the web portal.
  2. Reboot the PoP node. Connectivity to the E2E controller should be established when the node comes back up.

$ reboot

GPS Configuration

When deploying a test network with poor GPS visibility (e.g. indoors), nodes must be configured to disable the GPS synchronization check during link ignition. If this is applicable, add a network override for the radioParamsBase.fwParams.forceGpsDisable config to 1 (see Maintenance and Configuration).

SSH Configuration

SSH access to Terragraph nodes is controlled through SSH certificate authorities (CAs). The CAs that Terragraph nodes trust are managed via node configuration (see Maintenance and Configuration). These CAs can be used to sign user SSH keys.

  1. To generate a CA key, use ssh-keygen. It is recommended to use the ed25519 encryption scheme when generating CA and user keys.
$ ssh-keygen -f ~/.ssh/tg-CA -t ed25519
  1. Configure nodes to trust the newly generated CA by adding the contents of ~/.ssh/tg-CA.pub to sysParams.sshTrustedUserCAKeys.
$ cat ~/.ssh/tg-CA.pub
  1. Optionally, disable the default Terragraph CA on the nodes (/etc/ssh/tg-CA.bak) by setting sysParams.allowFactoryCA to false.

Kafka Configuration

Stats, events, and other data can be pushed from nodes to a Kafka broker. To enable this, add a network override for the statsAgentParams.endpointParams.kafkaParams.config.brokerEndpointList config to the list of Kafka broker URLs. Example:

{
"statsAgentParams": {
"endpointParams": {
"kafkaParams": {
"config": {
"brokerEndpointList": "PLAINTEXT://[2001::1]:9096,PLAINTEXT://[2001::2]:9096,PLAINTEXT://[2001::3]:9096",
}
}
}
}
}

When running in a Docker environment, please note that the node configuration must use port 9096 (by default), which will differ from the controller configuration's port 9092 (by default).

Fluentd Configuration

Log files can be pushed from nodes to Fluentd servers via a Fluent Bit client. To enable this, add a network override for the fluentdParams.endpoints config. Example:

{
"fluentdParams": {
"endpoints": {
"exampleServer": {
"host": "1111:2222:3333::ffff",
"port": 24224
}
}
}
}

Time Configuration

The NTP servers that Terragraph nodes use for system clock synchronization are managed via node configuration (see Maintenance and Configuration). By default, nodes will connect to time.facebook.com. To use custom NTP servers instead, set a network override for the sysParams.ntpServers config. Note that the server must have IPv6 (unless NAT64 or IPv4 are supported). Example:

{
"sysParams": {
"ntpServers": {
"ntp1": "1.pool.ntp.org",
"ntp2": "2.pool.ntp.org"
}
}
}

The timezone on Terragraph nodes is set using /etc/localtime. This can point at any valid tz database entry. By default, Terragraph nodes use the UTC timezone. To change this for all nodes, set a network override for the envParams.TIMEZONE config (see Maintenance and Configuration).

DNS Configuration

The DNS servers that Terragraph nodes use for DNS resolution are managed via node configuration (see Maintenance and Configuration). By default, nodes will use Google's public DNS servers (2001:4860:4860::8888 and 2001:4860:4860::8844). To use additional DNS servers, add their IPv6 addresses to sysParams.dnsServers. Example:

{
"sysParams": {
"dnsServers": {
"exampleServer": "1234:1234:ffff::1234"
}
}
}

WPA-Enterprise (802.1X) Configuration

Terragraph supports 802.1X for link authentication for enterprise-grade security. This requires a RADIUS server to be available and reachable from the nodes, and all Terragraph nodes must contain signed certificates. To enable 802.1X, set a network override for the config keys radioParamsBase.fwParams.wsecEnable (to 2) and eapolParams, as shown below:

{
"radioParamsBase": {
"fwParams": {
"wsecEnable": 2
}
},
"eapolParams": {
"ca_cert_path": "/data/secure/keys/ca.pem",
"client_cert_path": "/data/secure/keys/client.pem",
"private_key_path": "/data/secure/keys/client.key",
"radius_server_ip": "1234:5678:9abc::def",
"radius_server_port": 1812,
"radius_user_identity": "some-user",
"secrets": {
"private_key_password": "some-passphrase",
"radius_server_shared_secret": "some-secret",
"radius_user_password": "some-password"
}
}
}

By default, 802.1X is disabled, and links are authenticated using WPA-PSK.

Channel Configuration

The wireless channel can be manually configured for each node or assigned across the entire network. For automatic assignment, only channel 2 is enabled by default but the set of enabled channels can be configured via the topologyParams.enabledChannels controller configuration field.

DHCP, PD, and DS-Lite

Please note these features are only supported on the Rev5 platform.

Dual-Stack Lite (or DS-Lite) allows IPv4 to work natively in an IPv6 access network. Terragraph supports DS-Lite as a solution for dual-stack deployments. DS-Lite involves two network services: AFTR (Address Family Transition Router) and B4 (Basic Bridging BroadBand). The IPv6 address of the AFTR is required for setup. The CPE will run the B4 function as long as it supports DS-Lite.

DS-Lite Architecture

DS-Lite requires DHCP prefix delegation. Terragraph Rev5 nodes run Kea as a DHCP server with all the required configuration options.

The figure below shows an example Terragraph network with DS-Lite.

Configuration

The following section describes the node configuration options for setting up DHCP prefix delegation and DS-Lite.

Nodes with CPEs (DHCP)

The table below lists the configuration options in dhcpParams.

ConfigDescription
dhcpInterfaceInterface for DHCP (usually same as CPE interface)
dhcpPdDelegatedLenLength of prefix to be delegated to CPEs
dhcpPdPoolNetwork pool from which prefixes will be delegated (must be larger than dhcpPdDelegatedLen, or else only one prefix can be delegated)
dhcpPreferredLifetimeDHCP lease preferred lifetime; once this expires, the lease should not be used for new communications
dhcpRenewTimerDHCP renew timer (T1), usually set to 50% of the preferred lease time
dhcpRebindTimerDHCP rebind timer (T2), usually set to 87.5% of the preferred lease time
dhcpValidLifetimeLength of time that an address remains in the valid state, during which the address can be used for new or existing communications; when the valid-lifetime expires, the address becomes invalid and can no longer be used
dhcpRangeMinStart address for regular leases
dhcpRangeMaxMax address for regular leases
keaEnabledBoolean flag to enable or disable Kea (enabling Kea disables isc-dhcpd)
optionDataMap of DHCP options, with names as the keys and data as the values (refer to the DHCPv6 options list)
prefixSplitEnabledIf enabled, splits prefix down to /64 before pushing to hardware (please only enable on Marvell hardware)

Note that dhcpPdPool is an optional parameter. If it is not set, Kea will try to split the address allocated to the node for delegation, if possible.

DS-Lite auto-configuration will not work without prefix delegation. To disable prefix delegation entirely, leave both dhcpPdDelegatedLen and dhcpPdPool unset. Please note that the DHCP server is only supported in the Rev5 platform. On the newer VPP-based platforms, CPE provisioning with DHCPv6 is enabled via a DHCP relay.

PoP Nodes (BGP)

The table below lists the configuration options in bgpParams.

ConfigDescription
cpeNetworkPrefixEntire prefix used for prefix delegation in a deployment
delegatedNetworkPrefixesComma-separated list of specific prefixes desired to be routed from nearby CPEs (defined in dhcpParams.dhcpPdPool)

Terragraph Network Security

It is essential to implement proper access control list (ACL) rules to keep the Terragraph network infrastructure secure. Running Terragraph without any ACL rules upstream may expose security vulnerabilities. As such, it is critical that the e2e-network-prefix which the nodes are using be protected from the Internet by the application of ACL rules upstream.

Inbound

There is no requirement for connections that must be initiated from the Internet towards a Terragraph node under regular operation.

A Terragraph node exposed to inbound connections from the internet allows for vulnerabilities such as:

  • SSH access by unauthorized users (by default, trusts the CA in /etc/ssh/tg-CA.bak)
  • NTP amplification attacks
  • Route hijacking via BGP (if node is a PoP)

Outbound

Terragraph nodes may require the following outbound connections (depending on their configuration):

  • DNS -> Google DNS6
  • NTP -> time.facebook.com
  • E2E minion -> E2E controller on TCP port 7007
  • Fluent Bit -> configured Fluentd endpoint (TCP)
  • Stats agent -> configured Kafka endpoint (TCP)
  • Stats agent -> NMS aggregator on TCP port 8002 (off by default)
  • HTTPS -> https://graph.facebook.com (for logging stats, off by default)