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Service Scripts

This document describes Terragraph's service scripts and some related utilities.

Cloud Services

Terragraph manages its cloud services on x86 hosts using systemd.

systemd scripts

All systemd scripts reside in /etc/tg_systemd_config/. The actual service scripts are expected to be installed on the host manually, while the start/stop scripts remain in the rootfs. More details about the systemd scripts can be found in src/terragraph-e2e/systemd/

The set of files used in each service is as follows:

<service>.service - systemd service file (to be installed on host)
<service>.start - start script
<service>.docker.start - start script (when running in Docker container)
<service>.stop - stop script

Node Services

Services on Terragraph nodes are managed using runit.

runit scripts

All runit scripts reside in /etc/sv/<service>/ on the nodes. Most will run by default (e.g. e2e_minion, openr), some are disabled (e.g. e2e_controller), and others run only once after boot (e.g. pop_config). Many of these scripts can be enabled or disabled via node configuration; a common pattern in the run scripts is to sleep until seeing an "enabled" flag in the configuration.

Logs from each service are written to /var/log/<service>/current and are automatically rotated.

The basic directory structure for each service is as follows:

run - start script
finish - shutdown script
down - if present, service is disabled by default
run - log script (executes svlogd)

The runit framework is started via /etc/init.d/runit (installed from recipes-utils/runit/files/runit.init). Some noteworthy points are below:

  • runsv needs to write to /etc/sv/, but this is on a read-only partition. To handle this, scripts are actually installed in /etc/sv.bak/, then copied to /var/run/sv/ during runtime. A symbolic link is created from /etc/sv to /var/run/sv.
  • runsvdir is executed with taskset to run all applications on the last available core only.

Initializing drivers, firmware, and interfaces

There are several scripts called when starting either e2e_minion (via /usr/sbin/ or driver_if_daemon (via /usr/sbin/

  1. /usr/sbin/ - Provides functions to run, stop, and restart a service. The _run function calls
  2. /usr/bin/ - Provides a function to load the drivers and firmware, then bring up link interfaces, among other things. This calls the vendor-specific script
  3. /usr/bin/ - Provides functions to load the wireless ("backhaul") driver.

A pair of helper scripts is provided to associate a point-to-point link using r2d2 and driver_if_daemon:

  • /usr/bin/ - Used on the initiator node
  • /usr/bin/ - Used on the responder node

Environment variables

Most environment variables are loaded in scripts via /usr/sbin/, which exports fields in the envParams node configuration structure. This will call /usr/sbin/config_read_env to generate an intermediate file, /data/cfg/config, as needed.

Additional vendor-specific environment variables, mostly relating to kernel modules, are static and contained in /usr/bin/tg.env.

Hardware-related information is written to /var/run/node_info, which is generated at boot time by /etc/init.d/ The node info file is required by several services (e.g. e2e_minion). Most fields in this file are read from EEPROM. The file contents are as follows:

NODE_ID="node ID, must be a MAC address (ex. nic0 or wlan0)"
TG_IF2IF="use IF2IF firmware files (0 or 1)"
NUM_WLAN_MACS="number of radios"
MAC_X="baseband MAC address X"
BUS_X="PCI bus X"
GPIO_X="GPIO X (default: -1)"
NVRAM_X="NVRAM X (default: bottom_lvds)"
PCI_ORDER="ordering of pci slots for interface indexing"
HW_MODEL="hardware model string"
HW_VENDOR="hardware vendor"
HW_BOARD_ID="hardware board ID"
HW_REV="hardware revision number"
HW_BATCH="hardware batch number"
HW_SN="hardware serial number"

Note that on Puma hardware when using the PMD, the default MAC address is read from OTP, and these usually do not match the fields in EEPROM (i.e. MAC_X above). Some services will write and read a modified node info file in /tmp/node_info that contains the correct WLAN MAC addresses.

Custom startup scripts

User scripts can be executed as part of the boot sequence by placing them in /data/startup/. This is done via /etc/init.d/ For example, the following lines may be helpful for development:

# Disable software watchdog (to avoid unexpected reboots or service restarts)
source /etc/
mkdir -p "$progress_dir"

# Make root writeable (if manually modifying files in read-only paths)
mount -o remount, rw /

System time

For systems without an RTC module (ex. Puma), there may be several time jumps as the system boots:

  • The system time is initialized using the /etc/timestamp file. This file is written at build time during rootfs generation, and holds the build date (format: +%4Y%2m%2d%2H%2M%2S).
  • The chronyd time daemon runs via an /etc/init.d/ init script. This will synchronize system time to NTP servers defined in node configuration (sysParams.ntpServers), or by default. It will also use GPS/PPS as a time source if configured (envParams.GPSD_PPS_DEVICE, envParams.GPSD_NMEA_TIME_OFFSET). Logs are written to /var/log/chrony/.
  • The time_set script runs via an /etc/init.d/ init script after at least 90 seconds of system uptime. This attempts to run chronyd -q (one-time clock step, similar to ntpdate) to NTP servers in the oob (out-of-band) network namespace. Logs are written to /tmp/time_set.log.


Nodes run the rsyslogd daemon to configure system logging via /etc/rsyslog.conf. Some standard files are disabled to save space. Note that any boot-time syslog messages are dropped if they are written before rsyslogd has started (e.g. in the init.d sequence).

Log rotation

Log rotation is managed using the logrotate utility, and application-specific configuration is located in the /etc/logrotate.d/ directory. logrotate is triggered periodically via the cron job /etc/cron.d/logrotate. Note that a daily logrotate entry for /data/log/logs.tar.gz will save an archive of /var/log/ into the persistent /data/ directory.

Scripting Languages

The sections below briefly describe the scripting languages used in Terragraph and how they are set up.


Most included shell scripts are compliant with POSIX shell, but some require Bash. Code is validated using ShellCheck.


Terragraph installs Python 3.8., with the interpreter at /usr/bin/python3 (along with related links) and core/user packages at /usr/lib/python3.8/. In terragraph-image-minimal, only .pyc files are kept (.py and `.opt-` files are deleted).

Code is auto-formatted with Black and isort (config: .isort.cfg), and is linted using Flake8 (config: .flake8). Python tests are installed to terragraph-image-x86 and run using ptr (config: .ptrconfig) via meta-x86/recipes-testing/ptr/files/

Python code is not critical for production. To exclude Python and all dependent packages from an image, build with conf/no-python.conf.


Terragraph installs Lua 5.2, with all user scripts and dependencies captured in recipes-facebook/e2e/ Library code is minified using LuaMinify. The installed file structure is as follows:

/usr/bin/{lua,luac}             - Lua interpreter/compiler
/usr/sbin/*.lua - user scripts
/usr/sbin/tests/lua/*_test.lua - unit tests (X86 only)
/usr/lib/lua/5.2/ - library path (not /usr/share/lua/)
/usr/lib/liblua*.so* - Thrift .so libraries (others are in the standard library path)

Code is validated using Luacheck (config: .luacheckrc). Code documentation is auto-generated using LDoc (config: .config.ld). Lua tests are written using LuaUnit and installed to terragraph-image-x86.

Note that user scripts are generally not compatible with Lua 5.1/5.3+ or LuaJIT. However, they are mostly functional in Lua 5.1 after installing the compat52 module (see recipes-support/lua-compat52/ and importing it globally via require("compat52"), for example at the beginning of the tg.utils module (src/terragraph-e2e/lua/tg/utils.lua).


  • systemd - Linux init system with service management
  • runit - UNIX init scheme with service supervision
  • ShellCheck - Shell script static analyzer
  • Black - Python code formatter
  • isort - Python import organizer
  • Flake8 - Python linter
  • ptr - Python test runner
  • LuaMinify - Lua code minifier
  • Luacheck - Lua static analyzer and linter
  • LDoc - Lua documentation generator
  • LuaUnit - Lua unit testing framework
  • compat52 - Lua compatibility module providing Lua-5.2-style APIs for Lua 5.1